Sunday, April 22, 2012

Process Genre Approach to Writing

I am learning this new approach that is different from the Product approach or the Process approach of the mid-70s (something I was taught in). It is also different from the Genre Approach of the 80s where students benefitted from studying different forms of written texts. Badger and White (2000) have termed what we now called the Process Genre Approach. This approach allows students to study the relationship between purpose and form for a particular genre (eg. business letter) as they use the recursive processes of
  1. pre-writing
  2. drafting
  3. revision
  4. editing
The teacher acts as a guide, assistant and encourager as well as arouse curiosity and self-confidence by matching student interest to the writing topic.

The teacher should directly train students about writing strategies by demonstrating how pre-writing (eg. background material is read and students give verbal feedback) activates the schemata and outline strategies for the drafting and revision processes.

Teachers should include the listening, speaking and reading skills in the writing class.

The teaching procedure is divided into 6 steps:
  1. Preparation (Define a situation whereby a written text is required)
  2. Modeling (Teacher introduces a model of the genre: eg. argumentative essay to persuade the reader to act on something. Teacher teaches how its organization develops to accomplish its purpose. Students compare with other texts)
  3. Planning (Students brainstorm about the topic, discussing and reading associated material)
  4. Joint constructing (Students contribute information and ideas and the teacher writes it on the board)
  5. Independent constructing (Students work on their own)
  6. Revising (Peer editing from other students as the teacher guides and facilitates.)
According to Raimes (1983, 266) teachers should always try to provide students with writing assignments that can
  • Unite form and content
  • Ideas and organization
  • Syntax and meaning
  • Writing and revising
  • Writing and thinking
Raimes, A. 1983 Anguish as a second language? Remedies for composition teachers. New York: Longman
Badger, R and White G. A process approach to teaching writing. ELT Journal 54 (2): 153-60

Thursday, April 19, 2012

Tips to Resettle Well in Another Country

How someone leaves their home country determines how you enter a new place. Leaving right leads to grieving right. In the normal transition process, Take time to
1. Plan, prepare, participate.
2. Time to say goodbye (mentally leave)
3. Characterized by hope, expectation and control of destiny
4. Leaving Right: dealing with interpersonal issues and unfinished business.

Consider this acronym RAFT:
R- Reconciliation
A- Affirmation
F- Farewells
T- Think destination future

Consider the risks as families resettle:
"Inter-generational stress"
Culture shock
Lack of personal esteem
Loss of status, job, identity, health, property, home possessions, homeland
Absence of extended family
Loss of cultural values and ethnic heritage
Loss of esteem for 'mother tongue'

Notes taken from Judi Bastion, guest lecturer in LING302 Cross Culture Communications class with Professor Ruth Anaya, 2 Feb 2012.