Clauses have a subject and verb.
Clauses are either Independent or Dependent.
Keiko ate the seeds that we bought for her last week.
The subject: Keiko (Our pet cockatiel)
Predicate: ate the seeds that we bought for her last week.
Our predicate has 2 verbs: ate and bought
Clause 1: Keiko ate the seeds.
Clause 2: That we bought for her last week
Clause 1 can stand alone, so it's an independent clause.
Clause 2 needs to be attached to the first clause to make sense so that's called a dependent clause (or Subordinate clause) usually by a relative pronoun (that, which, who) or a linking conjunction or connective adverb like after, although, as, because, before, if, since, unless, until, when, while, so that...
Dependent Clauses (Subordinate Clauses)
Has different functions:
1. Act as an adjective (Adjective describes or modifies a noun)
2. Act as nouns
3. Act as adverbs
1. As an adjective: Example: The painting, which was a priceless piece of artwork, was stolen from the museum. (which was a priceless piece of artwork modifies the painting) Rule for Adjective Clauses: Usually right after the noun.
2. As a noun: I can't understand what she said. (what she said is the object of understand) Rule for Noun Clauses: Generally goes after a verb and can be introduced by that, what, which, who, whom, where, when, whoever, whatever
3. As an adverb: I felt horrible when I found out Keiko died from seed poisoning! (when I found out Keiko died from seed poisoning! modifies the verb "felt; it tells when I felt horrible) Rule for Adverb Clauses: Usually before or right after the independent clause and tend to explain time, manner, purpose, cause, result, effect, concession or contrast
Prepositions are usually at the end of the clause:
This is the part of Grammar which we are most frustrated with.
This is the part of the test which Paul is most anxious about.